Prosiding KAI 2013, hlm. 49-60

Evaluasi Praktek Budidaya Sistem Keramba Jaring Apung Bertingkat Berdasarkan Taksa Dominan dan Oportunistik Makrobenthos

Sapto P. Putro1,*, Riche Hariyati1, Suhartana2 dan Agung Sudaryono3

1, Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang
2Jurusan Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang
3 Jurusan Perikanan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang

Abstract

Sapto P. Putro, Agung Sudaryono, Riche Hariyati dan Suhartana. 2013. Cultivation Practices Evaluation System Multi-storey Floating Net Cages Based on Dominant Taxa and Opportunistic Makrobenthos. Konferensi Akuakultur Indonesia 2013. Environmental degradation resulting in decreased quantity of farmed fish production is a problem that often arises in A rapid industrial fisheries to meet the needs for food, especially seafood. Mass death in the cultivation period is often the case, especially in fish impoundment and floating net cage farm system. Based on this, the effective and efficient assessment of environmental quality are needed to increase production capacity and sustainability of its business. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of environment at farming area as an evaluation of the practice of floating net cage farm system based on the dominant and opportunistic taxa of the macrobenthic structure.A�The research was carried out at location of floating net cage farms at Lake Rawa Pening, Semarang regency. Abiotic and biotic sampling performed every three months over the study period, each consisting of four stations with three replications. Sampling was also done in the same amount of area within 1 km of the area of farming as a reference. Determination of causal factors, the level of disturbance, and species/taxa as indicators were done by analyzing the data and their abundance and environmental parameters using multivariate analysis approach on the structure and composition of the macrobethos. The results indicate an environmental disturbance based on a change in the structure of the makrobenthos. Dominant and opportunistic taxa were able effectively to describe the level of disturbance caused by farming practice using multivariate approach. The results of this research implies that moving the ordinate of floating net cages is needed at least once a year to allow the environmental sediments are recovered from the disturbance, especially caused by organic enrichment.

Keywords: Dominant taxa; Environmental disturbance; Graphical method; Macrobenthos; Multivariate approach; Sustainable aquaculture

Abstrak

Penurunan kualitas lingkungan yang berakibat menurunnya kuantitas produksi ikan hasil budidaya merupakan masalah yang sering muncul di tengah pesatnya industri perikanan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan, khususnya seafood. Kematian secara masal pada periode waktu pembudidayaan sering terjadi, khusunya budidaya dengan sistem tambak dan keramba jarring apung. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, upaya penentuan kualitas lingkungan budidaya yang efektif dan efisien diperlukan guna meningkatkan kapasitas produksi dan keberlanjutan usahanya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan kualitas lingkungan budidaya sebagai evaluasi terhadap praktek budidaya sistem keramba jaring apung bertingkat (KJAB) berdasarkan taksa dominan dan oportunistik dari struktur makrobenthos.A�Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di lokasi budidaya ikan sistem KJAB di perairan Rawa Pening, Kabupaten Semarang. Pengambilan sampel abiotik dan biotik dilakukan setiap tiga bulan selama setahun, masing-masing terdiri dari empat stasiun dengan tiga ulangan. Pengambilan sampel dengan jumlah sama juga dilakukan di area berjarak 1 km dari area budidaya sebagai referensi. Penentuan faktor penyebab, tingkat gangguan, dan species/taksa indikator dilakukan dengan menganalisis data parameter lingkungan dan kelimpahan makrobenthos menggunakan pendekatan multivariat analisis terhadap struktur dan komposisi makrobenthos. Hasil penelitian mengindikasikan adanya perubahan lingkungan didasarkan adanya perubahan struktur makrobenthos. Taksa dominan dan oportunistik mampu mengambarkan tingkat gangguan dengan efektif terhadap praktek budidaya menggunakan pendekatan multivariat. Implikasi hasil penelitian ini adalah perlunya melakukan pergeseran ordinat lokasi KJAB minimal setahun sekali untuk mengkondisikan lingkungan khususnya sedimen pulih kembali (recovery), khususnya dari pengkayaan organic (organic enrichment).

Kata kunci: Taksa dominan; Gangguan lingkungan; Metode grafis; Makrobenthos; Pendekatan multivariate; Akuakultur berkelanjutan

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