ICAI 2012 Proceedings, pp. 290-303
Traceability and Sustainability Analysis Aspects of Fish Meal and Fish Oil On Shrimp Aquafeed Industry In Indonesia
Agung Sudaryono1, Mahmud Hasan2 and Candika Yusuf3
1Aquaculture Study Program, Fisheries Department, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science,A�Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
2Indonesian Aquaculture Society, Institute of Research and Public Service Institute (LPPM),A�Diponegoro University, PO Box 8023 SMEL Semarang, Indonesia
Agung Sudaryono, Mahmud Hasan and Candika Yusuf. 2013. Traceability and Sustainability Analysis Aspects of Fish Meal and Fish Oil On Shrimp Aquafeed Industry In Indonesia. International Conference of Aquaculture Indonesia 2012. The artificial feeds or pellets turns out as important need in full filling the protein needs for fish or shrimp growth in semi-intensive and intensive aquaculture systems. One of the environment stressor factors on aquaculture is the process to full fill the protein source, the fish meal and oil, which act as the main components on pellets. The most possible impact to the environment which may occur is derived from unsustainable catch methods which may affect the fishes stocks. This study is aimed to discover the traceability and sustainability aspects of fish meal and oil in order to comply with global standards for responsible aquaculture such as the ASC (Aquaculture Stewardship Council) standards. The study used a descriptive analysis method by conducting the field survey and interview to collect the data. This study sistematically analyses and presents the facts obtained from the study in order to be understood and concluded easier (Azwar, 2001). The aim of the descriptive study is to sistematically and accurately describe the facts. Data were collected from survey activities on 1) the five major compound aquafeeds manufacturers in Indonesia for shrimp in East Java and West Java Provinces, 2) fish meal and fish oil producers in Provincies of East Java and West Java, and 3) fish landing ports and fishermen to investigate the sustainability of fish meal and fish oil sources. The field survey activities were carried out based on the requirements and recommendations for the possibility of available environmental issues. In the process of collecting data, an intensive communication with the aquafeeds manufacturers and fish collectors/fishermen was conducted during the study. Estimated shrimp feed productions in Indonesia in 2010 and 2011 were reported similar approximately 250,000 mt/year. Fish meal sources used in compounded aquafeeds for shrimp from different shrimp feed manufacturers varied depending on the requirement levels of fish meal origin (imported fish meal or domistic fish meal). In general, the manufacturers more used the imported fish meal (54.6%) than the domistic one (45.4%). All imported fish meal used by the shrimp feedmills is from the same captured wild fish source (Peru origin; exclusively Peruvian anchovy, Angraulis ringens) completed by the certification of Global Aquaculture Practices (G.A.P). Similarly, on the other hand all domistic fish meal used by the shrimp feedmills is from the same captured wild fish source (Bali Baya��Banyuwangi origin; exclusively Bali sardine, Sardinella longiceps) with no G.A.P certification. Dietary fish meals for Penaeus monodon were higher (30%) than those for Litopenaeus vanname (20a��25%). However, dietary fish oil for Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vanname were similar ranging from 1a��3%. As the result, FFER (feed fish equivalence ratio) performances for Penaeus monodon (2.25a��2.7; Table 4) were higher than those for Litopenaeus vanname (1.4a��2.1; Table 3). However, no difference was found between FCR (feed conversion ratio) performances for Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vanname with similar FCR values of 1.5a��1.8. In conclusion, to sustain fish meal and fish oil availability for shrimp aquafeed industry in Indonesia for the future, efforts should be carried out on reduction of fish meal and fish oil inputs in feed, development of integrated farming system, promotion of environmentally sound aquaculture practices and resource management, and discovery of more alternative feedstuffs for fish meal and fish oil. More intensive collaborations between the government and the private sectors to this matter would safe and sustain shrimp aquaculture industry in Indonesia for the future.
Keywords: Traceability; Sustainability; Fishmeal; Fish oil; Shrimp feed